The Republic of Peru (Spanish: República del Perú pron. more...
IPA ), is a country in western South America, bordering Ecuador and Colombia to the north, Brazil to the east, Bolivia to the east, south-east and south, Chile to the south, and the Pacific Ocean to the west.
Known as the cradle of the Inca empire, Peru is rich in people, culture and history. It harbours many indigenous ethnic groups, making it a major fieldwork site for cultural anthropologists.
Peru was home to various Pre-Inca cultures and later, to the Inca Empire. Francisco Pizarro landed on the Peruvian coast in 1532, and by the end of the 1530s the Viceroyalty of Peru encompassed all of Spain's territories in South America.
The Viceroyalty was a major source of gold and silver for the Spanish Empire. Lima was one of the two most important cities in Spain's empire in America, the other being Mexico City. It is said that the country received its name from a Spaniard pronunciation of the Belu River.
Peru declared its independence from Spain on July 28, 1821 thanks to an alliance between the Army of José de San Martín, and the Army of Simón Bolívar. Its first elected president, however, was not in power until 1827.
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